VI. Vocabulary

     An academy places a great deal of emphasis on direct vocabulary instruction. An important aspect of direct vocabulary instruction is selecting appropriate terms to teach. Beck and her colleagues (2002) designated three tiers of words: basic words like clock, happy, and baby are in Tier I; more advanced general academic or literary words like coincidence, absurd, imaginative, commercial, muscular, duplicate, and restrict are Tier 2; and domain-specific words such as pronoun, algebra, isthmus, and quark are in Tier 3. 
     Most native speakers of English will acquire Tier 1 words through conversation, reading, and daily experiences. However, there are two notable exceptions: students from lower socioeconomic status families and English learners. These students may require direct instruction in the basic Tier 1 words listed in this document. These 2,845 basic terms, along with 5,162 advanced terms, were listed in the book Teaching Basic and Advanced Vocabulary (Marzano, 2010).

Tier I Terms

     Tier I terms should be explicitly addressed at the elementary level. Stated differently, by the time academy students are ready to matriculate to the sixth grade they should be well graded in the Tier I terms. This should be done in a systematic fashion that involves three components: 1) the word list and student notebooks, 2) the practical activities, and 3) the video instructional activities. 


1. The Word List and Student Notebooks. The Tier I terms are organized into 420 semantic clusters. They are listed in Appendix A at the end of this section. As the name implies, the clusters are sets of related terms. For example, Cluster 35: Baby animals. Bunny, cub, pup, tadpole, calf, kitten, puppy.
     The clusters themselves are organized sequentially with the first one being the most basic. This means that the cluster contains terms that are highly frequent in the English language. The second cluster contains terms that are a little less frequent and so on. Each student should have a book entitled Building Background Vocabulary: Tracking My Progress. That book contains all 420 clusters as depicted in figure 6.1.

 

Notice that in figure 6.1 each Tier I term is listed with a scale that ranges from 4 to 1. The values of the scale are:
     4: I understand even more about the term than I was taught.
     3: I understand the term and am not confused about any part of what it means.
     2: I am a little uncertain what the term means, but I have a general idea.
     1: I am very uncertain about the term. I really don’t understand what it means. 

     This scale is a form of self-assessment that students should update on a systematic basis. 
     Also note in figure 6.1 that some words are labeled Challenge Words. These are Tier II words that also have similar meaning to the Tier I terms in the cluster.

 

Lists of words can be built right into Measurement Topics in Empower. As learners demonstrate knowledge of each term or concept at this granular level, teachers can check them off, allowing guardians, students and other teachers to know up-to-the-minute and down-to-the-letter what each learner does and doesn't know.

Watch the tutorial video to learn how admins can create and teachers can use lists:


2. Practice Activities. For each of the clusters, practice activities are available in PDF form. These activities introduce students to the meaning of the terms in the cluster and provide activities that deepen their understanding of the terms. To illustrate, consider cluster 20 on “distances.” The folio begins by asking students to check the words they already know. For example: 

 

Check the words you already know: 
Along
Away 
Beside
Between
By
Close
Far
Near
Past
Toward
Apart
Aside
Beyond
Nearby
Opposite
Outer

     Following this brief self-assessment students are provided with a stylized picture for each term and a brief explanation. Consider the following example:
 

Each PDF also includes review and assessment activities that help students determine the extent to which they know the terms in the cluster. Consider the following example:

Multiple choice quizzes can be created in Empower and taken digitally by students. This will allow Empower to score the quiz and automatically manage the scores including insterting them into the appropriate gradebook. 

Watch the Quiz Video                          Read the Quiz Article

3. Video-Based Instructional Activities. For each of the clusters video-based instructional activities are available to provide further support for students learning the Tier I terms. For many students simply addressing the information and activities in the PDF folios will be adequate for them to have a basic awareness and understanding of the terms in a cluster. However, for some students, more support might be required. The video-based instruction provides such support. 
The video-based instructional activities provide a picture representing each term as well as an extended audio description of the meaning of each term and examples of how the term is used in sentences. The video-based instruction is particularly useful with students for whom English is not their native language. 
At the elementary level instruction in the Tier I terms should be systematic and schoolwide. 

Videos can be easily uploaded and accessed by students with Empower's Activity tools. 

Watch the Activity Video                          Read the Activity Article

The Schoolwide Emphasis

     Within the schoolwide emphasis specific clusters are assigned to specific grade levels. For example, grades 1 and 2 would be held responsible for clusters 1 through 200. Grades 3 and 4 would be held responsible for clusters 201 through cluster 420. Teachers in these grade levels would identify clusters for which they are willing to take responsibility. For example, a first grade teacher might be responsible for cluster 57, color, because it fits into a specific unit she will teach. 
     For clusters for which they are responsible, teachers print the online PDF practice activities and go over them with the whole class. After instruction each student fills out the section in their Tracking My Progress book indicating their level of understanding on the four-point scale discussed previously. The teacher can also use the video-based resources for small groups of students.
     For some clusters teachers might have students work in teams to go over the printed practice activities and the video-based instructional resources. Students would also be encouraged to work independently on clusters that are not directly covered in class. 

Badging

     As students progress through the clusters, it is important to acknowledge and celebrate their accomplishments. This can be done using a badging approach. For example, once students have demonstrated competence for the first 100 clusters they might be awarded the bronze level of basic vocabulary expertise; when they have demonstrated competence for the first 200 clusters they would be awarded silver status. 300 clusters would constitute the gold level status, and all 420 clusters would constitute the platinum level. 

Students Working Independently in School and at Home

     Students should be allowed to work independently as they progress through the clusters. This includes working at home with help from their parents and guardians. Specifically, parents and guardians should have access to the online practice activities and video resources so that they might help students at home. 

Student Self-Assessment

     One of the aspects of the academy approach to instruction in Tier I terms that might seem unusual is the use of student self-assessment. Recall that students systematically assess themselves on a four-point scale as they progress through clusters. Some educators might question the accuracy of such assessments. In fact, students' self-assessments might be inaccurate to one degree or another. However, this should not be of great concern. The important part and the point of this activity is that students are engaging in the process of self-analysis as it relates to the terms in the Tracking My Progress book. Periodically, (e.g., once every two weeks) students should be asked to re-examine their books and update their assessment of the words they have already covered.
     Another form of assessment is available online. Specifically, the online assessment provides an approximation of the number of clusters a student knows. This assessment can be used to initially place students in the continuum of clusters. It can also be used to determine how many clusters students have progressed along the continuum. 

Surface Level Learning of Terms

     Another unusual aspect of the academy approach to instruction in Tier I terms is that instruction is not designed for deep level learning of the terms. This is because the Tier I terms are so frequent in the English language, that as long as students have a general, albeit surface level knowledge of them, they will encounter the terms frequently enough that the deep level learning will occur quite naturally.

Tier II Terms

     Tier II terms are also a part of the schoolwide approach described above. Specifically, each cluster includes challenge words. For example, for Cluster 35, Baby Animals, depicted in figure 6.1, the following challenge words are listed: chick, colt, fawn. These are the Tier II words that coincide with the Tier I terms in Cluster 35. In effect, if students have at least a working knowledge of the terms in the 420 clusters and the challenge words for those clusters, they will have a sound grounding in the Tier I and Tier II terms in the English language. 

Tier III Terms

     As described previously, Tier III words are domain-specific terms that students encounter as part of instruction in specific subject areas. The level 2.0 content in the proficiency scales explicitly list the Tier III terms important to each measurement topic. 
     A useful activity relative to Tier III terms is to highlight their importance by displaying them in word walls and playing academic games that involve them. For the elementary level, Appendix B contains the Tier III terms for English language arts, mathematics, and science. 

Vocabulary Instruction in High school

     The discussion about vocabulary instruction thus far has pertained primarily to grade levels below high school. This noted, there are some students who could benefit greatly from instruction in Tier I and II terms and even some of the elementary Tier III terms. Such instruction typically occurs in small group or one-to-one formats. 
     For the most part, vocabulary instruction at the high school level takes place in subject matter classrooms and focuses on the score 2.0 terms listed in the proficiency scales. 

Further Resources

Tutorial Videos

Print Resources

Appendix A: Tier I Terms

The Tier I terms are organized into 420 sematic clusters. The 420 clusters of semantically related terms have been further classified into 60 super clusters, or clusters of clusters. For example, consider super cluster 10 (Animals), which contains the following clusters:

32    Birds
35    Baby Animals
64    Cats/Dogs    
65    Land Animals (General)
70    Sea Animals
82    Reptiles and Mythical Animals
95    Insects
117    Actions Related to Animals

155    Parts of Animals
188    Rodents
189    Dwellings for Animals
194    Animals (General)
309    Shellfish (and Others)
310    Equipment Used With Animals
341    Primates

A list of all 2,845 Tier I terms organized into clusters is presented below. The terms are bracketed and formatted in boldface for emphasis.

1.    Modals [can, cannot, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would] (Super cluster 1: Auxiliary and Helping Verbs)
2.    Relationship Markers (Concurrent Action) [as, at, during, now, of, on, together, when, while] (Super cluster 6: Time)
3.    Primary Auxiliary Verbs [did, do, does, doing, done, had, has, have] (Super cluster 1: Auxiliary and Helping Verbs)
4.    Auxiliary Verbs [am, are, be, been, is, was, were, being] (Super cluster 1: Auxiliary and Helping Verbs)
5.    Relationship Markers (Addition) [and, of, too, with] (Super cluster 7: Comparison and Contrast)
6.    Pronouns/Reflexive Pronouns [he, him, I, it, me, myself, she, them, they, us, we, you] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
7.    Possessive Pronouns [her, hers, its, mine, my, our, their, your, yours, his, ours, theirs] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
8.    Interrogative Pronouns [what, when, where, which] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
9.    Direction To and From [at, from, to] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
10.    Cause/Effect (Relationship Markers) [because, by, for, from, if, since, so, then, to, because of] (Super cluster 3: Cause and Effect)
11.    Relative Pronouns [that, which, who] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
12.    Indefinite/Interrogative Adverbs [how, why] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
13.    Specifiers [a, an, each, every, no, that, the, these, this, those, either] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
14.    Exclamations (General) [ah, aha, bye, gee, good-bye, ha, hello, hey, hi, ho, maybe, no, oh, ok, okay, ooh, wow, yes, goodnight, wow] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
15.    Intensifiers [more, most, much, so, such, sure, too, very, well, badly] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
16.    Relationship Markers (Concurrent Action) [already, early, fresh, new, ready, since, young, ago, lately] (Super cluster 6: Time)
17.    Directions [left, right, east, north, south, west] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
18.    Diminishers [almost, enough, just, only, hardly, alone, mostly, nearly, simply] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
19.    General Amounts [all, another, both, few, half, less, little, lot, many, more, most, none, only, other, pair, two, whole, amount, couple, extra, several, single, twice] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
20.    Distances [along away, beside, between, by, close, far, near, past, toward, apart, aside, beyond, nearby, opposite, outer] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
21.    Front/Middle/Back [ahead, back, behind, end, forward, front, middle, center, last, ahead of, among, backward, backwards, rear] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
22.    In/Out [across, in, inside, into, out, outside, through, enter, outdoors, indoor, indoors, throughout, within] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
23.    Down/Under [below, bottom, down, low, under, beneath, underneath, downhill, downstairs, downward] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
24.    Relationship Markers (Subsequent Action) [before, late, next, soon, then, until, afterward, afterwards, later, latter] (Super cluster 6: Time)
25.    Locations [here, there, where, nowhere, somewhere, anywhere, someplace] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
26.    Up/On [above, high, off, on, over, tip, top, up, onto, upon, aboard, overheard, upright, upside-down, upstairs, upward] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
27.    Relationship Markers (Contrast) [but, else, not, or, still, than, without, yet, against, compare, either, except, instead, neither, unless, whether] (Super cluster 7: Comparison and Contrast)
28.    Numbers [eight, five, four, nine, one, seven, six, ten, three, two, zero eighteen, eighty, eleven, fifteen, fifty, first, forty, fourteen, hundred, nineteen, ninety, number, numeral, second, seventeen, seventy, sixteen, sixty, thirteen, thousand, twelve, twenty, billion, decimal, dozen, million, ninth, seventh, sixth, tenth, third] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
29.    Days and Months [April, August, December, February, Friday, January, July, June, March, May, Monday, November, October, Saturday, September, Sunday, Thursday, Tuesday, Wednesday] (Super cluster 6: Time)
30.    Attitudinals (Lack of Truth/Doubt) [maybe, possibly] (Super cluster 19: Attitudinals)
31.    Attitudinals (Other) [hopefully, please] (Super cluster 19: Attitudinals)
32.    Birds [bird, chicken, crow, duck, eagle, fowl, goose, hen, jay, owl, parrot, robin, rooster, turkey] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
33.    Size and Weight [big, giant, great, huge, large, little, small, tiny, enormous, gigantic, jumbo] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
34.    Indefinite Pronouns [any, each, enough, nothing, some, nobody, anybody, anyone, anything, no one, somebody, someone, something] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
35.    Baby Animals [bunny, calf, cub, kitten, pup, puppy, tadpole] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
36.    Vegetation (General) [bush, flower, plant, tree, vegetation, weed] (Super cluster 13: Trees and Plants)
37.    Boundaries [corner, edge, limit, margin, side] (Super cluster 4: Location/Direction)
38.    Tossing and Catching [catch, pass, throw, toss] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
39.    Ascending Motion [climb, lift, raise, order, rank, rise] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
40.    The Act of Occurring [do, use, happen, occur] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
41.    Ownership/Possession [have, belong, own, possess] (Super cluster 14: Acquisition and Ownership)
42.    Contractions (Are) [they're, we're, you're] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
43.    Sadness [sad, sorry, unhappy] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
44.    Giving and Taking [bring, carry, deliver, get, give, mail, move, place, present, put, return, send, set, take, bear, remove] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
45.    Fun and Joy [fun, glad, happy, joke, jolly, joy, merry, play, please, silly, celebrate, happiness, humor, joyful] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
46.    Choice [choice, choose, decide, judge, pick, select, appoint, sort] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
47.    Things Worn on the Head [cap, glasses, hat, helmet, hood, mask, sunglasses, crown] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
48.    Types of Meals [breakfast, dinner, lunch, meal, picnic, supper, treat, dessert] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
49.    Location (General) [address, direction, place, point, position, spot, location] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
50.    Bodies in Space [moon, sky, star, sun, universe, world, meteor, planet, space] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
51.    Eating and Drinking [bite, drink, eat, feed, sip, swallow, chew] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
52.    Periods of Time [age, fall, month, season, summer, week, weekend, winter, year, century, decade, generation, spring, weekday] (Super cluster 6: Time)
53.    Poems and Songs [lullaby, music, poem, rhyme, song, hymn] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
54.    Music and Dance [dance, music, ballet, melody, orchestra, solo] (Super cluster 24: Arts and Entertainment)
55.    Caring and Trusting [believe, care, enjoy, like, love, forgive, want] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
56.    People (General Names) [human, individual, people, person, hero, self] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
57.    Color [black, blue, brown, color, gold, gray, green, orange, pink, purple, red, white, yellow, blonde, colorful, silver] (Super cluster 8: Color)
58.    Importance and Value [best, better, dear, fine, good, important, perfect, outstanding, super, useful] (Super cluster 11: Importance and Goodness)
59.    Speed [fast, hurry, quick, race, rush, slow, speed, sudden, dash, slowdown] (Super cluster 6: Time)
60.    Places Related to Learning/Experimentation [kindergarten, library, museum, school, classroom, schoolroom] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
61.    Communication (Presentation of Information) [describe, explain, present, say, state, tell, brag, inform, mention, recite] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
62.    Things Worn on the Hands/Feet [boot, glove, mittens, shoe, skate, sock, stocking, sandal, slipper] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
63.    Walking/Running [dance, march, run, skip, step, trip, walk, hike, limp, stumble, tiptoe, trot] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and Running)
64.    Cats/Dogs [cat, dog, doggie, fox, lion, tiger, wolf, bulldog, collie] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
65.    Land Animals (General) [bear, cow, deer, donkey, elephant, giraffe, horse, lamb, pig, pony, rabbit, sheep, bat, bull, kangaroo, moose, raccoon, reindeer, skunk, zebra] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
66.    Coming/Going (General) [go, come, leave, travel, visit, wander, appear, approach, arrive, depart, disappear, exit, journey, proceed] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
67.    Memory/Thought (General) [forget, idea, remember, think, thought, wonder, imagine, memory] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
68.    Students and Teachers [principal, student, teacher, graduate, pupil, schoolteacher] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
69.    Emptiness and Fullness [empty, fill, full, hollow] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
70.    Sea Animals [fish, seal, whale, salmon, shark, tuna] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
71.    Writing, Drawing, and Reading [color, copy, draw, paint, print, publish, scribble, sign, spell, write, handwriting, misspell, publish, skim, trace, underline] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
72.    Right and Wrong [correct, just, real, right, true, truth, wrong, error, fair, false, fault, honest, mistake] (Super cluster 11: Importance and Goodness)
73.    Units of Measurement [foot, gallon, grade, inch, mile, pound, quart, yard, mouthful, spoonful, tablespoon] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
74.    Ingredients Used to Make Foods [dough, flour, gravy, mix, pepper, salt, sauce, sugar, catsup (ketchup), mayonnaise, mustard] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
75.    Limbs [arm, elbow, finger, hand, thumb, shoulders, wrist] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
76.    Legs and Feet [feet, foot, knee, leg, toe, ankle, heel] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
77.    Plays and Movies [act, cartoon, film, movie, show, stage, comedy, play] (Super cluster 24: Arts and Entertainment)
78.    Temperature [cold, heat, hot, temperature, warm, chill, cool] (Super cluster 34: Combustion and Temperature)
79.    Parts of a Day [day, evening, hour, minute, morning, night, noon, second, tonight, afternoon, midnight, overnight, sundown, sunrise, sunset] (Super cluster 6: Time)
80.    Throat and Mouth [mouth, teeth, throat, tooth, voice, gum, jaw, lip, tongue] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
81.    Contractions (Is) [he's, I'm, it's, she's, that's, there's, here’s, what's, where's] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
82.    Reptiles/Mythical Animals [alligator, dragon, frog, snake, toad, turtle, dinosaur, mermaid, monster] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
83.    Relative Time [old, past, present, today, tomorrow, yesterday, ancient, future, history, someday] (Super cluster 6: Time)
84.    Sound Producing Devices [alarm, bell, horn, phone, doorbell, siren, telephone] (Super cluster 21: Sounds and Noises)
85.    Contractions (Will) [he'll, I'll, she'll, they'll, we'll, you'll] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
86.    Dairy Products [butter, cheese, egg, yolk, cream, margarine] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
87.    Locations Near Water [beach, island, coast, shore] (Super cluster 20: Water)
88.    Medical Occupations [dentist, nurse, doctor] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
89.    Losing/Winning [loss, winner, champion, defeat, win] (Super cluster 14: Acquisition and Ownership)
90.    Nature and Weather (General) [air, weather, nature] (Super cluster 48: Weather and Nature)
91.    Rooms [basement, bathroom, cellar, closet, garage, hall, kitchen, nursery, room, bedroom, doorway, hallway, playroom, porch] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
92.    Fasteners [chain, glue, key, lock, nail, needle, pin, rope, string, cable, knot, screw, shoelace, strap] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
93.    Things You Travel On [alley, bridge, driveway, highway, path, railroad, road, sidewalk, street, track, trail, avenue, freeway, mall, racetrack, ramp, route, tunnel] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
94.    Family Relationships [aunt, brother, dad, family, father, granny, ma, mama, mom, mother, papa, parent, sister, son, uncle, cousin, daughter, grandparent, husband, mammy, nephew, niece, sibling, wife] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
95.    Insects [ant, bee, bug, butterfly, caterpillar, fly, insect, ladybug, spider, worm, bumblebee, cockroach, flea, grasshopper, mosquito, moth, slug, wasp] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
96.    Cooking and Eating Utensils [bowl, cup, dish, fork, glass, knife, pan, plate, pot, spoon, chopsticks, mug, opener, tablespoon, teaspoon, tray] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
97.    Vehicles (Actions and Characteristics) [cruise, drive, passenger, ride, row, sail, cruise, glide] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
98.    General Names for Groups [gather, group, pile, sequence, bunch, classify, list, organize, stack] (Super cluster 44: Groups)
99.    Dimensionality [deep, height, high, length, long, short, size, tall, thin, wide, depth, narrow, shallow, thick, width] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
100.    Communication (Positive Information) [agree, bless, greet, pray, thank, welcome, compliment, cooperate, encourage, praise] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
101.    Forms of Water/Liquid [ice, rain, snow, water, hail, icicle, liquid, rainbow, raindrop, rainfall, snowball, snowman, steam] (Super cluster 20: Water)
102.    Bodies of Water [lake, ocean, puddle, river, sea, stream, bay, creek, pond] (Super cluster 20: Water)
103.    Noises (General) [hear, listen, loud, noise, quiet, sound, aloud, calm, echo, silence, silent] (Super cluster 21: Sounds and Noises)
104.    Money and Goods [cent, coin, dollar, money, penny, quarter, cash, check, dime, nickel, pound, ticket] (Super cluster 17: Money and Goods)
105.    Communication (General) [speak, speech, talk, chat, discuss, statement] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
106.    Places Related to Protection/Incarceration [cage, cave, shelter, fort, jail] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
107.    Building and Repairing [find, fix, make, build, develop, prepare, produce, repair, shape] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials, and Building)
108.    Trees/Bushes (Parts) [branch, leaf, twig, bark, limb, stump] (Super cluster 13: Trees and Plants)
109.    Places Where Money/Goods Are Kept [bank, safe, purse, wallet] (Super cluster 17: Money and Goods)
110.    Actions Helpful to Humans [behave, help, save, heal, improve, protect] (Super cluster 50: Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive)
111.    Women [girl, lady, woman, female, housewife, schoolgirl] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
112.    Things to Write On/With [brush, card, crayon, ink, page, paper, pen, pencil, blackboard, chalk, chalkboard, loose-leaf, notebook, paintbrush] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
113.    Furniture [bed, bench, chair, crib, desk, drawer, seat, table, bookcase, couch, counter, cradle, cupboard, playpen, sofa, stool] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
114.    Areas of Land [land, lot, place, region, area, location, territory, zone] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
115.    Head and Face [cheek, chin, face, head, brain, forehead, mind] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
116.    Money-Related Characteristics [free, poor, poverty, rich, broke, cheap, expensive] (Super cluster 17: Money and Goods)
117.    Actions Related to Animals [fish, fly, hunt, trap, buck, gallop, soar, sting] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
118.    Appliances [oven, radio, stove, television, furnace, heater, fridge] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
119.    Tools (General) [hammer, saw, shovel, tool, drill, rake, screwdrivers, tweezers] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
120.    Vehicles (Air Transportation) [balloon, helicopter, kite, plane, rocket, aircraft, airline, airplane, spacecraft] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
121.    Places to Live [castle, home, hotel, house, hut, apartment, motel, palace, tent] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
122.    Actions Related to Money/Goods [buy, pay, sale, sell, spend, bet, earn, owe, purchase] (Super cluster 17: Money and Goods)
123.    Parts of a Home [door, floor, roof, stairs, wall, window, ceiling, doorstep, stair, staircase, stairway] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
124.    Foods that Are Prepared [bread, bun, cereal, chips, cracker, crust, hamburger, hotdog, jelly, pancake, pizza, salad, sandwich, snack, toast, biscuit, coleslaw, loaf, macaroni, muffin, noodle, oatmeal, omelet, pretzel, spaghetti, taco, tortilla, waffle] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
125.    Pants, Shirts and Skirts [belt, diaper, dress, jeans, pajamas, pants, pocket, shirt, skirt, apron, bathrobe, nightgown, robe, shorts, sweater, tights] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
126.    Frequency and Duration [long, never, often, once, sometimes, always, anymore, awhile, daily, ever, forever, frequent, hourly, rare, regular, repeat, seldom, twice, usual, weekly] (Super cluster 6: Time)
127.    Water/Liquid [boil, dive, drain, drip, float, melt, pour, sink, spill, splash, stir, swim, wet, bubble, dribble, flush, freeze, leak, slick, slippery, soak, spray, sprinkle, squirt, trickle] (Super cluster 20: Water)
128.    Transportation (Types) [bicycle, bike, bus, car, train, tricycle, truck, van, wagon, ambulance, automobile, cab, locomotive, motorcycle, scooter, stagecoach, subway, taxi, taxicab, trailer] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
129.    Clothing-Related Actions [fit, fold, sew, tear, wear, braid, patch, rip, wrinkle, zip] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
130.    Parts [bit, dot, flake, part, piece, crumb, member, portion, section, slice, sliver, splinter, type] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
131.    Grabbing and Holding [catch, hold, hug, pick, clasp, cuddle, grab, pinch, snuggle, squeeze] (Super cluster 35: Actions Involving Holding and Touching)
132.    Consciousness/Unconsciousness [asleep, awake, nap, sleep, daydream, dream, pretend, wake] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
133.    Soil [ground, land, mud, soil, clay, dirt, dust, earth] (Super cluster 46: Rocks, Metals, and Soil)
134.    Linens [blanket, cover, pillow, towel, bedspread, cushion, napkin, pillowcase, sheet, tablecloth] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
135.    Looking and Perceiving [look, see, stare, watch, blink, peek, spy, wink] (Super cluster 25: Seeing and Perceiving)
136.    Meats [bacon, beef, ham, hotdog, sausage, bologna, pork, steak] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
137.    Intelligence [able, smart, stupid, alert, brilliant, wise] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
138.    Literature (Types) [myth, story, fiction, legend, literature, mystery, poetry, riddle, tale, writing] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
139.    Parks and Yards [garden, park, yard, patio, playground, schoolyard] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
140.    Ears, Eyes and Nose [ear, eye, nose, eyebrow, eyelash, nostril] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
141.    Descending Motion (General) [drop, fall, lay, dump, slump, tumble] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
142.    Rectangular/Square Shapes [block, rectangle, square, triangle, cube, pyramid, triangular] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
143.    Board/Other Games [doll, toy, toys, puppet, puzzle] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
144.    Time Measurement Devices [calendar, clock, watch, date, o’clock] (Super cluster 6: Time)
145.    Coats [coat, jacket, cape, raincoat] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
146.    Actions Related to Work [quit, work, hire, labor] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
147.    Beginning Motion [begin, start, try, beginning, origin] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
148.    Receiving/Taking Actions [get, steal, accept, attract, capture] (Super cluster 14: Acquisition and Ownership)
149.    Specific Actions Done with the Hands [point, wave, clap, handshake, salute] (Super cluster 35: Actions Involving Holding and Touching)
150.    Contractions (Have) [I've, they've, we've, you've] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
151.    Facial Expressions [grin, smile, frown, nod] (Super cluster 40: Actions Involving the Face)
152.    Actions Associated with the Mouth [kiss, suck, lick, spit] (Super cluster 40: Actions Involving the Face)
153.    Sweets [cake, candy, cookie, cupcake, doughnut, gum, honey, jam, pie, pudding, syrup, brownie, butterscotch, caramel, chocolate, cocoa, fudge, licorice, lollipop, marshmallows, sherbet, sundae, vanilla] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
154.    Learning and Teaching [coach, direction, know, learn, teach, understand, advice, comprehend, confuse, discover, information, instruct, outsmart, study, suggest, trick] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
155.    Parts of Animals [feather, fur, hide, paw, tail, whisker, beak, bill, claw, fin, flipper, hoof, snout] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
156.    Noises People Make [cheer, cry, laugh, roar, shout, sing, whisper, yell, applause, chuckle, cough, giggle, holler, laughter, scream, snore, whistle, yawn] (Super cluster 21: Sounds and Noises)
157.    Body Coverings and Marks [bump, hair, rash, skin, bald, beard, bruise, freckle, pigtail, scar] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
158.    Recreation/Sports Equipment [ball, bat, glove, swing, base, goal, net, softball, touchdown] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
159.    Vehicles (Sea Transportation) [boat, canoe, ship, raft, submarine, tugboat, yacht] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
160.    The Body (General) [body, lap, neck, belly, chest, hip, waist] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
161.    Actions Harmful to Humans [hurt, kill, punish, harm, injure, murder, shoot] (Super cluster 50: Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive)
162.    Food-Related Actions [bake, boil, cook, barbeque, broil, fry, grill, roast, serve] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
163.    Cutting Tools [ax, axe, knife, scissors, blade, lawnmower, pocketknife] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
164.    Containers [bag, basket, bath, bathtub, bottle, box, bucket, jar, barrel, coffeepot, container, crate, folder, hamper jug, package, pail, pitcher, sack, suitcase, tub] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials and Building)
165.    Noises that Objects Make [bang, beep, boom, ring, click, creak, plop, rattle, slam, squeak, toot, zoom] (Super cluster 21: Sounds and Noises)
166.    Mathematical Operations [add, count, minus, plus, subtract, addition, cube, divide, division, multiplication, multiply, subtraction] (Super cluster 36: Mathematical Operations and Quantities)
167.    Performers and Entertainers [clown, dancer, actor, actress, magician, model] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
168.    Hills and Mountains [hill, mountain, cliff, hillside, mound] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
169.    Lack of Motion [rest, stay, delay, pause, relax, remain, wait] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
170.    Descending Motion [lie, sit, crouch, kneel, squat] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
171.    Finding/Keeping [find, keep, bury, hide, spot] (Super cluster 14: Acquisition and Ownership)
172.    Locations Where People Might Live [city, neighborhood, state, town, village, camp, county, downtown, ghetto, heaven, slum, suburb] (Super cluster 38: Locations and Places Where People Live)
173.    Royalty and Statesmen [king, mayor, president, candidate, knight, official, prince, princess, queen] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
174.    Fruits [apple, banana, cherry, grape, orange, peach, pear, strawberry, avocado, berry, blueberry, coconut, cranberry, grapefruit, lemon, melon, pineapple, plum, prune, raisin, raspberry] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
175.    Noises that Animals Make [bark, buzz, meow, moo, baa, cluck, gobble, growl, peep, purr, quack] (Super cluster 21: Sounds and Noises)
176.    Drinks [juice, milk, pop, soup, beer, chili, coffee, soda, stew, tea, wine] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
177.    Questioning [answer, ask, call, offer, question, reply, request, respond, test] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
178.    Fabrics [cloth, rag, thread, cotton, lace, leather, nylon, silk, wool] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
179.    Recreational Events and Festivals [birthday, party, recess, circus, date, fair, holiday, parade, vacation] (Super cluster 45: Events)
180.    Countries and Continents [country, nation, continent, equator, hemisphere] (Super cluster 38: Locations and Places Where People Live)
181.    Wooden Building Materials [stick, wood, board, log, post, timber] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials and Building)
182.    Pushing and Pulling [pull, push, drag, haul, shove, yank] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
183.    Recreation and Sports [game, recess, contest, race, recreation, sport] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
184.    Giving Up/Losing [show, trade, borrow, lose, loser, share] (Super cluster 14: Acquisition and Ownership)
185.    Cleanliness/Hygiene [clean, wipe, rinse, scrub, sweep, wash] (Super cluster 49: Cleanliness)
186.    Attractiveness [pretty, ugly, beautiful, cute, handsome, lovely] (Super cluster 53: Physical Traits of People)
187.    Physical Trait (Size) [fat, heavy, chubby, lean, skinny, slim] (Super cluster 53: Physical Traits of People)
188.    Rodents [mouse, squirrel, beaver, groundhog, hamster, rat] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
189.    Dwellings for Animals [nest, zoo, aquarium, beehive, birdhouse, cocoon, hive] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
190.    Places Related to Sports/Entertainment [theater, court, gym, stadium] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
191.    Body Fluids [blood, bleed, sweat] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
192.    Vegetation (Other) [grass, lawn, root, vine] (Super cluster 13: Trees and Plants)
193.    Inclination [flat, even, lean, level, steep] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
194.    Animals (General) [animal, pet, wildlife] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
195.    Visual Images and Perception [appearance, badge, flag, image, scene, sight, view] (Super cluster 25: Seeing and Perceiving)
196.    Breathing [blow, breath, choke, exhale] (Super cluster 40: Actions Involving the Face)
197.    Feeling and Striking [hit, slap, spank, touch, beat, feel, knock, pat, pound, smash, tap, tickle] (Super cluster 35: Actions Involving Holding and Touching)
198.    Communication (Confrontation/Negative Information) [blame, cheat, lie, accuse, argue, complain, dare, disagree, disobey, quarrel, scold, tease, warn] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
199.    Angular and Circular Motions [around, roll, turn, clockwise, rotate, spin, surround, swing, twirl, twist] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
200.    Political and Social Groups [country, family, community, democracy, nation, race, society, tribe] (Super cluster 44: Groups)
201.    Money/Goods (Received) [gift, prize, award, medal, reward, savings, treasure] (Super cluster 17: Money and Goods)
202.    Texture [hard, soft, bumpy, firm, rough, smooth, tight] (Super cluster 27: Texture, Durability, and Consistency)
203.    Men [boy, man, guy, hero, male, schoolboy, sir] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
204.    Names that Indicate Age [baby, child, adult, grown-up, kid, teenager, toddler] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
205.    Names that Indicate Camaraderie/Friendship [friend, neighbor, boyfriend, classmate, pal, partner, playmate] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
206.    Names that Indicate Negative Characteristics about People [bandit, villain, bully, criminal, enemy, killer, liar, pirate, thief] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
207.    Communication (Supervision/Commands) [correct, let, obey, advice, allow, command, control, demand, direct, excuse, forbid, force, permit, refuse, remind, require] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
208.    Vegetables, Grains and Nuts [carrot, corn, nut, peanut, popcorn, seed, almond, bean, cashew, celery, cucumber, lettuce, olive, onion, peas, pickle, potato, pumpkin, rice, spinach, squash, tomato, walnut, wheat] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
209.    Sports (Specific Types) [baseball, soccer, softball, swim, swimming, basketball, bicycle, bowling, boxing, football, golf, hockey, racing, skate, skating, ski, skiing, tennis, volleyball, wrestling] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
210.    Places Where Goods Can Be Bought/Sold [grocery, store, bakery, bookstore, cafeteria, drugstore, lunchroom, restaurant] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
211.    Courage and Loyalty [brave, courage, heroic, honest, loyal] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
212.    Clothing Parts [button, collar, sleeve, zipper] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
213.    Muscles, Bones and Nerves [bone, joint, muscle, skeleton] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
214.    Money/Goods (Paid Out) [price, cost, payment, rent] (Super cluster 17: Money and Goods)
215.    Completion [end, complete, finish, last] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
216.    Shifting Motion [slip, rock, skid, slide] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
217.    Fences and Ledges [gate, fence, mailbox, shelf] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
218.    Crookedness/Straightness [line, bent, crooked, cross, straight, stripe] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
219.    Alphabet and Letters [alphabet, consonant, letter, symbol, vowel] (Super cluster 54: Language)
220.    Fire [fire, burn, campfire, flame, spark] (Super cluster 34: Combustion and Temperature)
221.    Ease and Difficulty [easy, difficult, impossible, problem] (Super cluster 51: Danger and Difficulty)
222.    Tastes Related to Food [taste, flavor, juicy, ripe, sour, sweet, tasty] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
223.    Cleaning Tools [brush, soap, broomstick, floss, mop, shampoo, sponge, suds, toothbrush, toothpaste] (Super cluster 49: Cleanliness)
224.    Clothing and Grooming Accessories [brush, comb, handkerchief, buckle, fan, jewelry, kerchief, necklace, perfume, pin, ribbon, ring, scarf, tie, umbrella] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
225.    Mental Exploration [news, search, analyze, examine, experiment, explore, homework, investigate, lesson, schoolwork] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
226.    Wind and Storms [storm, thunder, blizzard, downpour, draft, hurricane, lightning, thunderstorm, tornado, wind] (Super cluster 48: Weather and Nature)
227.    Names for Spiritual/Mythological Characters [angel, god, cupid, devil, elf, fairy, ghost, monster, witch, wizard] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
228.    Goodness and Kindness [thankful, considerate, courteous, gentle, grateful, kind, nice, polite, respectful] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
229.    Names of People in Sports [athlete, batter, boxer, catcher, coach, loser, runner, winner] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
230.    Disease [sick, disease, health, ill, injury, well] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
231.    Medicine [pill, aspirin, bandage, medicine, vitamin] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
232.    Hunger and Thirst [hungry, hunger, starve, thirst, thirsty] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
233.    Time (General) [time, bedtime, daytime, dinnertime, lunchtime] (Super cluster 6: Time)
234.    Parts of Vehicles [paddle, wheel, anchor, fender, mirror, oar, parachute, seatbelt, tail, tire, trunk, wing] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
235.    Contractions (Not) [don’t, isn’t, ain't, aren't, can't, couldn't, doesn't, hasn't, haven't, shouldn't, weren't, won’t, wouldn't] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
236.    Occupations (General) [job, career, chore, housework, profession, task, worker] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
237.    Rocks and Jewels [rock, boulder, diamond, jewel, marble, stone] (Super cluster 46: Rocks, Metals, and Soil)
238.    Words, Phrases and Sentences [word, adjective, adverb, noun, sentence, verb] (Super cluster 54: Language)
239.    Art [art, painting, photo, photograph, picture, statue] (Super cluster 24: Arts and Entertainment)
240.    Safety and Danger [safe, danger, dangerous, risk, trouble, unsafe] (Super cluster 51: Danger and Difficulty)
241.    Actions Associated with the Nose [smell, sneeze, sniff, snore, snort, stink] (Super cluster 40: Actions Involving the Face)
242.    Abrasive/Cutting Actions [cut, rub, carve, chop, clip, dig, mow, peel, scoop, scratch, shave, slice, snip, stab] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
243.    Lack of Value [bad, awful, evil, terrible, wicked, worse, worst] (Super cluster 11: Importance and Goodness)
244.    Musical Instruments [instrument, banjo, drum, guitar, piano, triangle, violin] (Super cluster 24: Arts and Entertainment)
245.    Life, Birth, and Death [dead, alive, born, die, egg, hatch, life, live, wake] (Super cluster 47: Life, Death, and Survival)
246.    Types of Food [food, crop, fruit, meat, seafood, sweets, vegetables] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
247.    Joining [meet, attach, combine, connect, fasten, include, join, marriage, marry, stick, wedding] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
248.    Publication Types [book, bible, booklet, chapter, cookbook, diary, dictionary, essay, journal, magazine, newspaper, novel, outline, storybook, summary, text, textbook] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
249.    Conclusions [guess, calculate, clue, compose, conclude, create, design, estimate, fact, information, invent, invention, mystery, prediction, prove, solve, suppose] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
250.    Destructive Actions [accident, break, crash, crush, damage, dent, destroy, mark, ruin, scratch, waste, wreck] (Super cluster 50: Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive)
251.    Building Materials (Other) [bar, brick, cardboard, paste, pipe, plastic, sewer, tube, wire] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials and Building)
252.    Similarity [alike, copy, equal, even, example, like, same, similar, twin] (Super cluster 7: Comparison and Contrast)
253.    Physical Characteristics [athletic, beauty, clumsy, health, might, power, strength, strong, weak, weakness] (Super cluster 53: Physical Traits of People)
254.    Weapons [arrow, bomb, bullet, firecracker, fireworks, gun, sword] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
255.    Persuasion/Advice [advise, appeal, beg, convince, cue, persuade, recommend, suggest] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
256.    Messages [letter, message, note, postcard, poster, signal, valentine] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
257.    Domains of Work [business, law, medicine, military, religion, science, technology] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
258.    Groups of Animals/People [band, class, club, crowd, herd, team] (Super cluster 44: Groups)
259.    Metals [gold, iron, magnet, metal, silver, steel] (Super cluster 46: Rocks, Metals, and Soil)
260.    War and Fighting [battle, fight, peace, revolution, war, wrestle] (Super cluster 50: Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive)
261.    Likelihood and Certainty [bet, certain, chance, likely, luck, miracle, possible] (Super cluster 57: Popularity, Familiarity, and Likelihood)
262.    Order and Complexity [balance, blank, fancy, order, plain, simple] (Super cluster 59: Complexity and Conformity)
263.    Clothing (General) [clothes, clothing, costume, suit, uniform] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
264.    Artists and Performers [artist, choir, drummer, painter, singer] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
265.    Public Officials [firefighter, officer, policeman, sheriff, soldier] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
266.    Religious and Clergy [minister, nun, pastor, pope, priest] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
267.    Craters and Valleys [hole, canyon, ditch, manhole, pit, valley] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
268.    Objects/Materials Used to Cover Things [cork, cover, flap, lid, mask] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials, and Building)
269.    Plants and Flowers [berry, blossom, dandelion, rose, seed] (Super cluster 13: Trees and Plants)
270.    Curved and Circular Shapes [circle, bend, curl, curve, loop, oval, round, twist] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
271.    Light [bright, clear, light, shiny, sunshine] (Super cluster 58: Light and Darkness)
272.    Light Producers [candle, candlestick, lamp, light, lightbulb] (Super cluster 58: Light and Darkness)
273.    Causality/Effect [cause, change, effect, outcome, purpose, reason, result] (Super cluster 3: Cause and Effect)
274.    Contractions (Would) [he'd, I'd, she'd, they'd, you'd] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
275.    Engines [battery, brake, engine, jet, motor] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
276.    Electronics [computer, keyboard, monitor, mouse, robot] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
277.    Topics and Subjects [goal, plan, subject, topic] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
278.    Pride and Confidence [certain, confident, hopeful, proud, sure] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
279.    Illustrations and Drawings [diagram, drawing, graph, map] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
280.    Motion (General) [action, activity, motion, play] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
281.    Vibration [juggle, shake, shiver, vibrate, wiggle] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
282.    Jerking Motion [bounce, fidget, snap, wag] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
283.    Expanding Motion [blast, expand, explode, magnify, spread] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
284.    Furnishing and Decorations [banner, carpet, curtain, rug, vase] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
285.    Attitudinals (Truth) [certainly, honestly, really, seriously, simply, truly] (Super cluster 19: Attitudinals)
286.    Language Conventions [comma, language, period, vocabulary] (Super cluster 54: Language)
287.    Symptoms [dizzy, fever, itch, pain] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
288.    Uncleanliness and Filth [garbage, junk, litter, trash] (Super cluster 49: Cleanliness)
289.    Familiarity and Popularity [common, familiar, normal, ordinary, popular, regular, usual] (Super cluster 57: Popularity, Familiarity, and Likelihood)
290.    Conformity to a Norm [odd, rare, special, strange, weird] (Super cluster 59: Complexity and Conformity)
291.    Fear [afraid, alarm, fear, nervous] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
292.    Anger [anger, angry, dislike, hate, mad] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
293.    Desire [expect, miss, need, selfish, want, wish] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
294.    Dependability and Eagerness [active, busy, eager, responsible] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
295.    Instability [crazy, mad, wild] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
296.    Locations For/Near Water (Manmade) [aquarium, canal, dam, dock, pool] (Super cluster 20: Water)
297.    Small Business [baker, barber, butcher] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
298.    Military [army, navy, police] (Super cluster 44: Groups)
299.    Dissimilarity [change, difference, different, opposite, unequal, unlike] (Super cluster 7: Comparison and Contrast)
300.    Pursuit [chase, follow, track] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
301.    Reducing/Diminishing [crumble, crumple, shorten, shrink, tighten] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
302.    Separating [divorce, separate, split] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
303.    Shapes (General Names) [outline, pattern, shape] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
304.    Exercise [exercise, practice, stretch] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
305.    Actions Related to Disease/Injury [blister, burn, scab, sunburn] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
306.    Dark [dark, shade, shadow] (Super cluster 58: Light and Darkness)
307.    Natural Catastrophes [avalanche, earthquake, flood] (Super cluster 48: Weather and Nature)
308.    Jumping [hop, jump, leap] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and Running)
309.    Shellfish (And Others) [lobster, shell, shrimp, snail, starfish] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
310.    Equipment Used with Animals [collar, horseshoe, leash, saddle] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
311.    Cruelty and Meanness [cruel, mean, unkind, violent] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
312.    General Upset [alone, bother, upset] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
313.    Doubt and Hope [belief, doubt, hope, trust] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
314.    Lubricants and Fuels [fuel, gas, grease, oil] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
315.    Handles [doorknob, handle, knob] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
316.    Miscellaneous Devices [dial, ladder, pedal, switch, trigger] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
317.    Lack of Permanence (People) [guest, stranger, visitor] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
318.    Vehicles (Snow) [sled, sleigh, snowplow] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
319.    Titles and Names [name, title, nickname] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
320.    Rules and Laws [law, regulation, rule] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
321.    Places Related to Meetings/Worship [church, shrine, temple] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
322.    Opening and Closing [open, shut] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
323.    Durability/Strength [strong, weak, delicate] (Super cluster 27: Texture, Durability, and Consistency)
324.    Storage Locations [barn, shed] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
325.    Objects (General Names) [thing, object] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials, and Building)
326.    Bluntness/Sharpness [sharp, dull] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
327.    Things that Are Commonly Measured [angle, diameter, radius] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
328.    Lack of Popularity/Familiarity [secret, private] (Super cluster 57: Popularity, Familiarity, and Likelihood)
329.    Growth and Survival [grow, survive] (Super cluster 47: Life, Death, and Survival)
330.    Size of People [giant, dwarf] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
331.    Vehicles (Work-related) [tractor, wheelbarrow] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
332.    Independence and Freedom [free, liberty, obedient] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
333.    Writers and Reporters [author, speaker, writer] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
334.    People Who Clean Up [garbage man, janitor, custodian] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
335.    Places Related to Transportation [station, airport] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
336.    Organs [stomach, heart] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
337.    Characteristics of Rocks/Soil [sand, pebble] (Super cluster 46: Rocks, Metals, and Soil)
338.    Halting Actions [quit, stop] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
339.    Kicking Actions [kick, stamp] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and Running)
340.    Mathematical Quantities [average, sum, total] (Super cluster 36: Mathematical Operations and Quantities)
341.    Primates [gorilla, monkey] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
342.    Linking Verbs [become, seem] (Super cluster 1: Auxiliary and Helping Verbs)
343.    Names that Indicate Permanence for People [pioneer, caveman, citizen] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
344.    Names that Indicate Fame [star, celebrity] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
345.    Communication (Information Previously Withheld) [admit, tattle] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
346.    Recording/Translating Information [record, recording, video] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
347.    Interest [attention, interest] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
348.    Procedures and Processes [process, recipe, routine] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
349.    Beliefs [belief, opinion] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
350.    Shyness [bashful, shy] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
351.    Dishonesty [dishonest, naughty, unfair] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
352.    Equipment Used with Water/Liquid [faucet, hose, sprinkler] (Super cluster 20: Water)
353.    Moisture [cloud, fog] (Super cluster 20: Water)
354.    Characteristics Related to Clothes/Wearing of Clothes [barefoot, naked] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
355.    Assistants and Supervisors [boss, leader, owner] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
356.    Occupations Usually Held by Youth [babysitter, paperboy] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
357.    Discoverers and Scientists [astronaut, geography, scientist] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
358.    Occupations Associated with Imprisonment/Slavery [guard, prisoner, slave] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
359.    Construction and Repairmen [carpenter, plumber] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
360.    Legal Professions [judge, lawyer] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
361.    Servants [maid, servant] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
362.    Woodlands and Forests [forest, jungle] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
363.    Pastures and Fields [field, prairie] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
364.    Structures that are Man-made [building, tower] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
365.    Factories, Mills and Offices [office, shop] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
366.    Ranches and Farms [farm, ranch] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
367.    Packing and Wrapping [pack, tape, tie, wrap] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials, and Building)
368.    Failure and Success [fail, succeed] (Super cluster 11: Importance and Goodness)
369.    Attitudinals (Fortunate/Unfortunate) [luckily, unfortunately] (Super cluster 19: Attitudinals)
370.    Magic [magic, trick] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
371.    Ailments and Diseases [blind, cold, deaf] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
372.    Actions Related to Light [reflect, shine, twinkle] (Super cluster 58: Light and Darkness)
373.    Actions Related to Measurement [measure, weigh] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
374.    Devices Used for Measurement [thermometer, yardstick] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
375.    Characteristics Associated with Weather [dry, overcast, sunny] (Super cluster 48: Weather and Nature)
376.    Products of Fire [ash, smoke] (Super cluster 34: Combustion and Temperature)
377.    Chemicals [caffeine, helium, oxygen] (Super cluster 60: Chemicals and Matter)
378.    Guilt and Worry [guilt, shame, worry] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
379.    Irritability [grouch, grumpy, rude] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
380.    Excitement and Attention [amaze, excite, surprise] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
381.    Human Traits (General) [skill, talent] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
382.    Experience/Expertise [beginner, expert] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
383.    Promises [promise] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
384.    Definition/Meaning [define] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
385.    Lack of Initiative [lazy] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
386.    Luck and Success [lucky] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
387.    Stubbornness and Strictness [strict] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
388.    Spirituality [holy] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
389.    Caution [careful] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
390.    Geometric Planes [sideways] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
391.    Water-Related Directions [afloat] (Super cluster 20: Water)
392.    Food Service Occupations [waiter] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
393.    Messengers [mailman] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
394.    Occupations Associated with the Outdoors [cowboy] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
395.    People Who Buy and Sell [customer] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
396.    People Who Work in Offices [secretary] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
397.    Occupations Associated with Transportation [pilot] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
398.    Characteristics of Places [desert] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
399.    Medical Facilities [hospital] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
400.    Monuments [monument] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
401.    Business and Social Groups [audience] (Super cluster 44: Groups)
402.    Actions Associated with Crops/Soil [plant] (Super cluster 46: Rocks, Metals, and Soil)
403.    Force [force] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
404.    Germs and Genes [germ] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
405.    Clarity [invisible] (Super cluster 58: Light and Darkness)
406.    Clouds [cloud] (Super cluster 48: Weather and Nature)
407.    Neatness/Sloppiness [neat] (Super cluster 53: Physical Traits of People)
408.    Creeping/Lurking Actions [crawl] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and Running)
409.    Standing/Stationary [stand] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and Running)
410.    Branches of Mathematics [math] (Super cluster 36: Mathematical Operations and Quantities)
411.    Semi-Auxiliary Verbs [have to] (Super cluster 1: Auxiliary and Helping Verbs)
412.    Events and Dates (General) [event] (Super cluster 45: Events)
413.    Political Events [vote] (Super cluster 45: Events)
414.    Products Associated with Fire [pipe] (Super cluster 34: Combustion and Temperature)
415.    Paint [paint] (Super cluster 8: Color)
416.    Actions Related to Fear [scare] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
417.    Envy and Jealousy [jealous] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
418.    Electricity [magnet] (Super cluster 60: Chemicals and Matter)
419.    Machines [machine] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
420.    Vision-Related Equipment [camera] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)

 

Super Clusters and Related Clusters

1.    Auxiliary and Helping Verbs: 1, 3, 4, 342, 411
2.    Pronouns: 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 34
3.    Cause and Effect: 10, 273
4.    Physical Location and Orientation: 9, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 37, 49, 390
5.    Measurement, Size, and Quantity: 13, 15, 18, 19, 28, 33, 73, 130, 327, 373, 374
6.    Time: 2, 16, 24, 29, 52, 59, 79, 83, 126, 144, 233
7.    Comparison and Contrast: 5, 27, 252, 299
8.    Color: 57, 415
9.    Verbal Interactions: 14, 61, 100, 105, 177, 198, 207, 255, 345, 346, 383
10.    Animals: 32, 35, 64, 65, 70, 82, 95, 117, 155, 188, 189, 194, 309, 310, 341
11.    Importance and Goodness 58, 72, 243, 368
12.    The Human Body: 75, 76, 80, 115, 140, 157, 160, 191, 213, 336
13.    Trees and Plants: 36, 108, 192, 269
14.    Acquisition and Ownership: 41, 89, 148, 171, 184
15.    Parts of Dwellings: 91, 113, 123, 134, 217, 284
16.    Vehicles and Transportation: 93, 97, 120, 128, 159, 234, 318, 331
17.    Money and Goods: 104, 109, 116, 122, 201, 214
18.    Actions Involving Walking and Running: 63, 308, 339, 408, 409
19.    Attitudinals: 30, 31, 285, 369
20.    Water: 87, 101, 102, 127, 296, 352, 353, 391
21.    Sounds and Noises: 84, 103, 156, 165, 175
22.    Food and Eating: 48, 51, 74, 86, 124, 136, 153, 162, 174, 176, 208, 222, 232, 246
23.    Literature, Composition, and Writing: 53, 71, 112, 138, 248, 256, 279, 319, 320
24.    Arts and Entertainment: 54, 77, 239, 244
25.    Seeing and Perceiving: 135, 195
26.    Clothing: 47, 62, 125, 129, 145, 178, 212, 224, 263, 354
27.    Texture, Durability, and Consistency: 202, 323
28.    Movement and Action: 38, 39, 40, 44, 66, 141, 147, 169, 170, 182, 199, 215, 216, 247, 280, 281, 282, 283, 300, 301, 302, 322, 338, 403
29.    Structures and Buildings: 60, 106, 121, 190, 210, 321, 324, 335, 364, 365, 366, 399, 400
30.    Shapes: 69, 99, 142, 193, 218, 270, 303, 326
31.    Contractions: 42, 81, 85, 150, 235, 274
32.    Categories of People: 56, 94, 111, 203, 204, 205, 206, 227, 317, 330, 343, 344, 382
33.    Places, Land, and Terrain: 50, 114, 139, 168, 267, 362, 363, 398
34.    Combustion and Temperature: 78, 220, 376, 414
35.    Actions Involving Holding and Touching: 131, 149, 197
36.    Mathematical Operations and Quantities: 166, 340, 410
37.    Reasoning and Mental Actions: 46, 67, 132, 137, 154, 225, 249, 277, 347, 348, 349, 384
38.    Locations and Places Where People Live: 172, 180
39.    Emotions and Attitudes: 43, 45, 55, 291, 292, 293, 311, 312, 313, 378, 379, 380, 381, 416, 417
40.    Actions Involving the Face: 151, 152, 196, 241
41.    Machines and Tools: 92, 96, 118, 119, 163, 242, 254, 275, 276, 314, 315, 316, 419, 420
42.    Games, Sports, and Recreation: 143, 158, 183, 209, 304, 370
43.    Containers, Materials, and Building: 107, 164, 181, 251, 268, 325, 367
44.    Groups: 98, 200, 258, 298, 401
45.    Events: 179, 412, 413
46.    Rocks, Metals, and Soil: 133, 237, 259, 337, 402
47.    Life, Death, and Survival: 245, 329
48.    Weather and Nature: 90, 226, 307, 375, 406
49.    Cleanliness: 185, 223, 288
50.    Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive: 110, 161, 250, 260
51.    Danger and Difficulty: 221, 240
52.    Occupations: 68, 88, 146, 167, 173, 229, 236, 257, 264, 265, 266, 297, 333, 334, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397
53.    Physical Traits of People: 186, 187, 253, 407
54.    Language: 219, 238, 286
55.    Nonphysical Traits of People: 211, 228, 278, 294, 295, 332, 350, 351, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389
56.    Disease and Death: 230, 231, 287, 305, 371, 404
57.    Popularity, Familiarity, and Likelihood: 261, 289, 328
58.    Light and Darkness: 271, 272, 306, 372, 405
59.    Complexity and Conformity: 262, 290
60.    Chemicals and Matter: 377, 418

Appendix B: Tier III Terms (Elementary)

     At the elementary level, Tier III terms should be taught in the context of specific measurement topics to which they are most closely related. This does not mean that this should not be reinforced outside of regular classroom instruction. They can be the subjects of word walls, vocabulary games, and continuous review of the words and their meanings. Figure 6.2 depicts the number of Tier III terms in grades K-5.

Figure 6.3 depicts the number of terms teachers should address on a weekly basis.

Figure 6.4 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for ELA for grades K-2.

Figure 6.4

Figure 6.5 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for ELA for grades 3-5.

Figure 6.5

Figure 6.6 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for mathematics for grades K-2.

Figure 6.6

Figure 6.7 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for mathematics for grades 3-5.

Figure 6.7

Figure 6.8 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for science for grades K-2.

Figure 6.8

Figure 6.9 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for science for grades 3-5.

Figure 6.9

Figure 6.10 depicts the recommended Tier III science grade band terms.

Figure 6.10

©Robert J Marzano

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